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Discuss the purpose of subnetting. What does CIDR stand for and mean?
Discuss the use of ARP, TCP, UDP, FTP, HTTP, and Telnet.
How does TCP ensure reliable delivery? Name a few TCP protocols. What is TCP’s “counterpart” that does not ensure reliable delivery?  Name a few of these protocols.
Discuss the purpose of subnetting. 

In a subnet, the hosts may be on different physical networks but share a single network number. Each host in the subnet is configured with an IP address and Subnet mask.

Discuss the use of ARP, TCP, UDP, FTP, HTTP, and Telnet. 

The Application layer consists of protocols that focus on process-to-process communication across an IP network and provides a firm communication interface and end-user services. These services are sub protocols with specific goals. 

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is responsible for resolving internet addresses into link layer addresses. It is also used for mapping a network address to a physical address.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is connection-oriented, reliable communications service responsible for the establishment of a TCP connection, the sequencing and acknowledgement of packets sent, and the recovery of packets lost during transmission.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is used when the amount of data to be transferred is small, or when the applications or upper layer protocols provide reliable delivery.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) allows files to be transferred between computers
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is used to transfer web pages to end-users.
Telnet is a bi-directional text communication via a terminal application; it’s used for logging on remotely to network hosts.

How does TCP ensure reliable delivery? 

The TCP provides reliable communications services by providing sequencing services to the packets sent as well as an acknowledgment service. When the correct response is not received, TCP process the packet again to assure the requested transfer happens.

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