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Malcolm X is a name that is etched in the history of America as an activist and public speaker against white oppression. Malcolm X was a voice for a collective of black people that felt action needed to be taken. He was a black nationalist that advocated in blacks defending themselves against white oppression by any means even if it requires violence. He used speeches such as “The Ballot or the Bullet” to effectively spread his message and accomplish some goals. “The Ballet or the Bullet” is an iconic speech in which he is basically preaching about black people taking action whether it be necessary to use violence which represents the bullet or through political maturity in elections which represents the ballot. Malcolm says that “the political philosophy of black nationalism means that the black man should control the politics and the politicians in his own community… the black man in the black community has to be reeducated into the science for politics” ( Malcolm X, 2009, p. 410 ). His advocacy for political awareness was to strengthen the black communities’ participation in politics and elections. He truly believed that the black community united could be a strong force that liberates them. This sentiment was shared when he stated that “we must first learn to forget our differences. If we have differences, let us argue in the closet..until we get finished arguing with the man” (p. 405). Once black people are united and realize their strength, Malcolm preaches that white men will fear this. Black people would have effectively learned to gain control of their own community and create places of employment for themselves so that “you don’t have to beg some cracker downtown for a job in his business” (p. 410). Overall, Malcolm X goal of political education has somewhat come to fruition with many people of the African diaspora showing involved involvement in the government. More than that though his message has motivated generations of African Americans to voice their frustrations against the continuing racial injustice in America.

After reading the passages and completing the module lectures, I believe that the tactics of the Black Panther Party were most effective for accomplishing and reaching their goals that they set. They wanted people to understand that self-defense is important, but they did not want it to contradict itself in the sense that people are supposed to be giving their own voice and reason, not that they were security guards or police. In the passage, Huey P. Newton and the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, it stated, “People constantly thought that we were security guards and community police or something like this. This is why we dropped the term ‘Self-Defense’ from our name and directed the attention of the people to the fact that the only way they would get salvation is through their control of the institutions which serve the community” (2009, P. 453). From this excerpt, I thought it was smart for them to take out the terms “self-defense” from their title, because it was leading people towards a different outlook than they had intended. The tactics that they were using for the Black Panther Party included electing black people for office positions, running stores or businesses, organizing black community groups, etc. I think it was a good idea for the party to use tactics that promoted the interests and valued the beliefs of the people, because it allowed for more support and motivated people to follow them. It was effective for the party to advocate for a true voice for all people, and it was good that they wanted to adopt any new ideas to make their freedom happen. They worked towards removing the barrier and taking away the isolation that existed between the white and black people, because everyone should have equal rights and equal freedoms as well. I think this was the most effective group that used the right tactics to accomplish their goals. 
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you must post a reply to two of your classmates’ discussion posts.  This should be at least 200 word each, unique (don’t use the same response for both), be written in complete sentences and be in paragraph form, and include at least 1 in-text citation with a reference at the bottom for each response. You can earn up to 50 points for the posts and up to 50 points for the responses. Remember to use proper grammar, spelling, punctuation and APA style. Provide a word count at the bottom of your response.

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